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HOW ARE KIDNEY STONES DIAGNOSED
Following tests are there which help to diagnose kidney stones, see where they are located, and find out if they are causing or may cause damage to the urinary tract.
 
  • A noncontrast spiral computed tomography (CT) scan is the preferred test for kidney stones. It is a special type of CT scan that moves in a circle.
  • An intravenous pyelogram (IVP) is an X-ray test that can show the size, shape, and position of the urinary tract, including the kidneys and ureters. See an IVP of a kidney stone.
  • A retrograde pyelogram may be done if the IVP or CT scan does not provide a diagnosis.
  • Laboratory investigations typically carried out include:[28][30][34][37].
  • microscopic examination of the urine, which may show red blood cells, bacteria, leukocytes, urinary casts and crystals.
  • urine culture to identify any infecting organisms present in the urinary tract and sensitivity to determine the susceptibility of these organisms to specific antibiotics.
  • complete blood count, looking for neutrophilia (increased neutrophil granulocyte count) suggestive of bacterial infection, as seen in the setting of struvite stones.
  • renal function tests to look for abnormally high blood calcium blood levels (hypercalcemia).
  • 24 hour urine collection to measure total daily urinary volume, magnesium, sodium, uric acid, calcium, citrate, oxalate and phosphate.
  • An abdominal X-ray (KUB) gives a picture of the kidneys, the bladder, and the tubes that connect the kidneys to the bladder (ureters).
  • An ultrasound exam of the kidneys (ultrasonogram) is the preferred test for pregnant women.
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