What is acute kidney failure?
Acute kidney failure (acute renal failure or acute kidney injury) occurs when the kidney is not able to filter waste products from the blood. When the kidney is not able to function properly, harmful waste levels can accumulate, and the blood chemicals can get out of the balance.
What are the symptoms?
Symptoms and signs of acute kidney failure that includes:
- Decreased urine output, although occasionally urine output remains normal
- Fluid retention, causing swelling in your legs, ankles or feet
- Shortness of breath
- Irregular heartbeat
- Chest pain or pressure
- Seizures or coma in severe cases
In some cases, kidney failure does not leave signs or symptoms, so it is essential to get lab tests to find the exact reason.
If you have these symptoms then consult the doctor right away to learn what treatment plan you need to get.
What are the causes?
Impaired blood flow to the kidneys
There are certain conditions and diseases which slow down the blood flow to the kidney and can lead to kidney injury that includes:
- Blood or fluid loss
- Blood pressure medications
- Heart attack
- Heart disease
- Use of aspirin and ibuprofen
- Severe allergic reaction (anaphylaxis)
- Severe burns
- Liver failure
- Severe dehydration
Damage to the kidneys
- Blood clots in the veins and arteries in and around the kidneys
- Cholesterol deposits which block the flow of blood to the kidneys
- Glomerulonephritis, kidney tiny filters can get inflamed.
- Medications like chemotherapy drugs, antibiotics, and dyes used during imaging tests
- Scleroderma (problem affecting the skin and connective tissues)
- Rare blood disorder
- Lupus, an immune system disorder which results in glomerulonephritis
- Alcohol consumption, heavy metals, and cocaine
- Muscle tissue breakdown
- Breakdown of tumor cells which leads to kidney injury
Urine blockage in the kidneys
- Bladder cancer
- Blood clots in the urinary tract
- Nerve damage which also controls the bladder
- Prostate cancer
- Cervical cancer
- Colon cancer
- Enlarged prostate
- Kidney stones