Kidney Failure: Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

Kidney Failure: Causes, Symptoms & Treatment
kidney failure

Kidney Failure: Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

  • August 16, 2023


Kidney failure, also known as renal failure, is a serious medical condition characterized by the loss of kidney function. The kidneys are crucial in filtering waste products, excess fluids, and toxins from the blood, maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance, and producing hormones that regulate blood pressure and red blood cell production. When the kidneys fail to perform these essential functions adequately, it can lead to significant health complications. 


This article explores the causes, symptoms, and treatment options for kidney failure.

Causes of Kidney Failure

The kidney doctors in Ludhiana state that kidney failure can be acute (sudden onset) or chronic (gradual and progressive). Some common causes of kidney failure include:

Chronic Kidney Disease

Underlying conditions such as diabetes, high blood pressure (hypertension), polycystic kidney disease, and glomerulonephritis can lead to chronic kidney disease, which may eventually progress to kidney failure.

Acute Kidney Injury

Due to trauma, surgery, or other medical conditions, sudden and severe kidney damage can be caused by infections, dehydration, kidney stones, drug toxicity, or reduced blood flow to the kidneys.

Urinary Tract Obstruction

Blockages in the urinary tract, such as kidney stones or tumors, can impede urine flow, leading to kidney damage and potential failure.

Autoimmune Disorders

Certain autoimmune conditions, like lupus or autoimmune vasculitis, can cause inflammation and kidney damage.

Certain Medications and Toxins

Long-term use of certain medications, like nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), some antibiotics, and exposure to certain toxins, can harm the kidneys.

Symptoms of Kidney Failure

In the early stages, kidney failure may not present noticeable symptoms. As the condition progresses, the following signs and symptoms may become apparent:

Fatigue and Weakness

Decreased kidney function can lead to a buildup of waste products in the blood, causing fatigue and weakness.

Decreased Urine Output

Reduced urine production and changes in urine color (dark or foamy urine) may indicate kidney problems.


Fluid retention, often seen as swelling in the legs, ankles, feet, or face, can occur due to impaired kidney function.

Shortness of Breath

The buildup of fluids in the lungs can lead to difficulty breathing or shortness of breath.

Nausea and Vomiting

Kidney failure can result in nausea, vomiting, and loss of appetite.

Persistent Itching

Accumulation of waste products in the blood may cause persistent itching.

Changes in Urination

Frequent urination, especially at night, or difficulty urinating may be observed.

Treatment of Kidney Failure

In kidney hospitals in Ludhiana, the treatment for kidney failure depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition. Treatment options may include:


Medications may be prescribed to manage symptoms and underlying conditions contributing to kidney failure, such as hypertension, diabetes, or autoimmune disorders.

Dietary Changes

A kidney-friendly diet, low in sodium, potassium, and phosphorus, may be recommended to reduce the workload on the kidneys.

Fluid Management

Limiting fluid intake is essential to prevent fluid overload and swelling.


For advanced kidney failure, dialysis may be necessary to remove waste products and excess fluids from the blood artificially.

Kidney Transplant

In severe cases of kidney failure, kidney transplantation may be considered a long-term solution.


Kidney failure is a serious condition that requires prompt diagnosis and appropriate management. Understanding the causes, recognizing the symptoms, and seeking timely medical attention is crucial for early detection and better treatment outcomes. By adopting a healthy lifestyle and adhering to medical advice, individuals can reduce the risk of kidney disease and promote optimal kidney function, safeguarding their overall health and well-being.